This article is mainly notes I have taken for CSCB09/CSC209 at UofT.


A fork system call will create a child process that is a duplicate of the parent.

fork() takes no arguments and returns a process ID.

To use fork, include unistd.h.

The return value of fork is different depends on the outcome:

Fork with loop example:

int main() {
    int i;
    pid_t child;
    for(i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
        child = fork();
        if (child == 0)
            printf("Child %d", getpid());
    return 0;

This program will have 8 processes in total, including the parent process.


Within parent process, you might want to wait for a child to terminate. You might also want to know the exit code for a child.

You can use wait() for that. It will block until one of the children terminates or there is no more child.

pid_t wait(int *status);

It returns the PID of the child, and sets the status as the child’s exit status.

Some Macros

if(WIFEXITED(status)) {
    // Exited normally

Zombie Processes

When a child terminates, but its parent process is not waiting for it.

Then the child is kept around as a zombie until the parent collects its status using wait.

It will show up as Z in ps.

Orphan Processes

If a parent terminates before the child, child becomes a orphan.

Orphans gets adopted by init process, which has PID of 1.


If you want to wait for a specific child, use waitpid

pid_t waitpid(pid_t pid, int *status, int options);

If options is 0, it will block, just like wait.

However if it is WNOHANG, it will return 0, without blocking, you have to keep calling it to check.


Exec will replace the program being run by a different one.

int i = 5;
printf("%d\n", i);
printf("%d\n", i);

The last line of the above program will NEVER run, unless there is an error.

Exec is a family of functions

execl(char *path, char *arg0, , (char *)NULL);
execv(char *path, char *argv[]);
execlp(char *file, char *arg0, ,(char *)NULL);
execvp(char *file, char *argv[]);

Shell Skeleton

    read_cmd(command, params);
    } else {
        // Exec

File Descriptors

FDs are handles to open files, they belong to processes.

FDs are preserved across fork and exec.

Initializing UNIX

The only way to create new process is to fork, and only way to run new program is exec.

Therefore all processes have ancestor of pid 1.